What is the iron law of oligarchy in sociology?

What is the iron law of oligarchy in sociology?

The "iron law of oligarchy" states that all forms of organization, regardless of how democratic they may be at the start, will eventually and inevitably develop oligarchic tendencies, thus making true democracy practically and theoretically impossible, especially in large groups and complex organizations.

How do you think groupthink might affect the verdict of juries in a court case?

How do you think groupthink might affect the verdict of juries in a court case? You are pressured to make a decision because of your peers. When there are several people advocating for a specific point, the jury is less likely to make a decision on their own. Groupthink could cause injustice and unfairness.

What type of group is a jury?

Courts and Legal Procedure A jury is a group of people summoned and sworn to decide on the facts in issue at a trial.

What are two reasons why groupthink might occur more often when the leader has a strong preference for a particular decision?

Groupthink is more likely to occur in groups in which the members are feeling strong social identity—for instance, when there is a powerful and directive leader who creates a positive group feeling, and in times of stress and crisis when the group needs to rise to the occasion and make an important decision.

What are the 8 symptoms of groupthink?

Irving Janis described the eight symptoms of groupthink:

  • Invulnerability. Members of the group share an illusion of invulnerability that creates excessive optimism and encourages taking abnormal risks.
  • Rationale. ...
  • Morality. ...
  • Stereotypes. ...
  • Pressure. ...
  • Self-censorship. ...
  • Illusion of Unanimity. ...
  • Mind Guards.

What is the best example of groupthink?

Here, the desire for group cohesion effectively drives out good decision-making and problem solving. Two well-known examples of Groupthink in action are the Challenger Space Shuttle disaster and the Bay of Pigs invasion.

Why is groupthink bad?

Groupthink leads to bad decisions because it encourages members of the group to ignore possible problems with the group's decisions and discount the opinions of outsiders. ... It influences decisions most when there are no clear rules for decision making.

What are the advantages of groupthink?

Positives of Groupthink

  • Cooperation is Improved. When groupthink happens, the group agrees more often than not due the nature of the phenomenon in general. ...
  • Harmony Exists. ...
  • There Will be Less Stress. ...
  • Finish it Quickly. ...
  • Lower Quality. ...
  • Wrong Decisions. ...
  • It Could Ruin Your Relationships in the Long Run.

Is groupthink positive or negative?

Irving Janis further developed the concept in his 1972 book "Victims of Groupthink." In extreme circumstances, groupthink can contribute to disastrous consequences. However, groupthink is not an entirely negative phenomenon.

What are the effects of groupthink?

Groupthink—the tendency of groups to make decisions that preserve the status quo rather than take dissenting opinions into account—can be toxic to teams and organizations. It can stifle innovation and make employees feel pressured to conform.

Which of the following is a symptom of groupthink?

The eight symptoms of groupthink include an illusion of invulnerability or of the inability to be wrong, the collective rationalization of the group's decisions, an unquestioned belief in the morality of the group and its choices, stereotyping of the relevant opponents or out-group members, and the presence of “ ...

Is groupthink a bias?

For example, nowadays, social media have an enormous effect on groupthink. ... Bandwagon bias is a form of groupthink. It's a cognitive bias that makes us believe something because other people believe it. It can make us think something that is achievable is impossible because others have tried and failed before us.

What is the concept of groupthink?

Groupthink is a phenomenon that occurs when a group of individuals reaches a consensus without critical reasoning or evaluation of the consequences or alternatives.

What are the causes of groupthink?

There are several well-known causes of groupthink—group cohesiveness, overall isolation of the group, rigid leadership and decisional stress. We have seen how tightly cohesive groups become obsessed with conformation.

How is groupthink prevented?

To do that, make sure your decision-making process does the following to help avoid groupthink:

  1. Includes participation from all employees involved in the decision.
  2. Introduces alternative viewpoints for discussion.
  3. Rewards employees for vocalizing opinions outside the norm.

What is the difference between conformity and groupthink?

is that conformity is state of things being similar or identical while groupthink is a process of reasoning or decision-making by a group, especially one characterized by uncritical acceptance of or conformity to a perceived majority view.

Which is an example of a secondary group?

A university class, an athletic team, and workers in an office all likely form secondary groups. ... Classmates as Secondary Groups: A class of students is generally considered a secondary group. Doctors as Secondary Groups: The doctor-patient relationship is another example of secondary groups.

Why do people conform?

Researchers have found that people conform to a number of different reasons. ... In some instances, we conform to the expectations of the group in order to avoid looking foolish. This tendency can become particularly strong in situations where we are not quite sure how to act or where the expectations are ambiguous.

What are the main areas of social influence?

Social influence is the process by which an individual's attitudes, beliefs or behavior are modified by the presence or action of others. Four areas of social influence are conformity, compliance and obedience, and minority influence.

What is the social need to influence others?

Social influence is the change in behavior that one person causes in another, intentionally or unintentionally, as a result of the way the changed person perceives themselves in relationship to the influencer, other people and society in general. Three areas of social influence are conformity, compliance and obedience.

What is socially accepted behavior?

Social norms are the accepted standards of behavior of social groups. These groups range from friendship and workgroups to nation-states. behavior which fulfills these norms is called conformity, and most of the time roles and norms are powerful ways of understanding and predicting what people will do.