What is the origin of oligarchy?

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What is the origin of oligarchy?

The first records of the word oligarchy come from the 1570s. It comes from the Greek oligarchía and is formed from oligo-, meaning “few,” and -archy, meaning “rule” (the same ending is used in words like monarchy and anarchy). The word oligarchy does not imply a specific political doctrine or philosophy.

What is Parkinson's second law?

Parkinson's First Law states that "Work expands to fill the time available for its completion." Parkinson's Second Law: "Expenditures or "money paid" out rises to meet income." ... Parkinson's Fourth Law: "The number of people in any working group tends to increase irrespective of the amount of work to be completed."

What does Parkinson's Law mean?

Parkinson's Law is the old adage that work expands to fill the time allotted. Put simply, the amount of work required adjusts to the time available for its completion. The term was first coined by Cyril Northcote Parkinson in a humorous essay he wrote for the Economist in 1955.

How do you overcome Parkinson's Law?

How to overcome Parkinson's Law

  1. Have an end time for the day. You must set a time that marks the end of the day for your work. ...
  2. Set self-imposed deadlines. Try to put a deadline for a project or task yourself. ...
  3. Reward yourself for completing a project. ...
  4. Challenge yourself to do it faster. ...
  5. Work in time slots.

What is Parkinson's Law in the project management?

Parkinson's Law: “Work expands to fill the time available.” ... Originally stated as “Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion,” this law has wide implications for projects (Parkinson, 1957, p.

Which law states that work expands to fill the time allowed?

Parkinson's Law

How do you use Parkinson's Law to your advantage?

Break up each of your tasks into 25-minute time blocks.

  1. Use the Pomodoro Technique. ...
  2. Track how you spend your time. ...
  3. Take breaks frequently. ...
  4. Get an accountability partner. ...
  5. Make a time limit rule. ...
  6. Limit certain tasks to 30 minutes a day. ...
  7. Stop working late.

Who said work expands to fill the time available?

C. Northcote Parkinson

Who is Parkinson's disease named after?

A History of Parkinson's Disease. Parkinson's disease is named for the English physician James Parkinson, who in 1817 published a comprehensive description titled An Essay on the Shaking Palsy. Though Parkinson's research was later recognized as a major work in the field, it received little attention for decades.

What kills Parkinsons?

The illnesses that kill most people are the same as those that kill people with PD. These are heart conditions, stroke and cancer. As we age we become increasingly aware that more than one bad thing can happen to our bodies.

How do Parkinson patients die?

Two major causes of death for those with PD are falls and pneumonia. People with PD are at higher risk of falling, and serious falls that require surgery carry the risk of infection, adverse events with medication and anesthesia, heart failure, and blood clots from immobility.

Does Parkinson's affect memory?

Parkinson disease causes physical symptoms at first. Problems with cognitive function, including forgetfulness and trouble with concentration, may arise later. As the disease gets worse with time, many people develop dementia. This can cause profound memory loss and makes it hard to maintain relationships.

What worsens Parkinson's disease?

Medication changes, infection, dehydration, sleep deprivation, recent surgery, stress, or other medical problems can worsen PD symptoms. Urinary tract infections (even without bladder symptoms) are a particularly common cause.

What happens if Parkinson's is left untreated?

Untreated prognosis Untreated, Parkinson's disease worsens over years. Parkinson's may lead to a deterioration of all brain functions and an early death. Life expectancy however is normal to near normal in most treated patients of Parkinson's disease.

What is the longest someone has lived with Parkinson's?

All had PD onset before age 66. The majority (75%) had 20–25years of PD duration, and the longest duration was 49 years (Fig. 1).